Are Autonomous Drones Legal
We would like to affirm that true autonomous flight only takes place when the drone or flight system decides where and when to fly without direct human intervention. The idea today is simple, the terms “autonomous” and “auto-steering” (or “self-control”) were interchangeable terms in the past, we think the industry is moving forward. In short, we think that autonomy is a greater thing than we attribute to it, and the autopilot is almost a fundamental feature. Unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly referred to as “drones”, offer enormous potential in footnote 1 for the development of innovative civilian applications in various sectors. Footnote 2 According to data collected by the European Union (EU) Commission, the European drone sector alone is expected to directly employ more than 100,000 people within two decades and have an economic impact of more than $10 billion. EUR per year. Footnote 3 Military and police forces in the United States have used drones for a variety of purposes, including encouraging people to stay at home during the pandemic. These issues make an already complex set of rules and responsibilities even more uncertain and lead to further complications for drone operators (autonomous or not). The UA/drones will be radio-controlled, so one must closely follow Japan`s radio law. The bill, passed in the fall of 2018, included several provisions that have significantly influenced government regulation of drones. Some categories of drones will be able to fly over outdoor gatherings of people, provided they comply with the regulations. For example, they may not contain exposed rotating parts that would tear human skin during an impact with a person. If a crime has been committed, the owner of the property can bring an action for damages.
Damages are intended not only to compensate the plaintiff, but also to justify the loss (or infringement) of his rights and to deter the injured party and other potential infringers. Footnote 83 Thus, in addition to personal injury liability in this case, the question arises as to whether the operator of a drone is liable for the offence of trespassing and is liable for damage to the landowner, even if the drone intentionally crossed the landowner`s airspace. This serves to further highlight the complexity of autonomous drone operation in terms of tort law only. Surveying a fence line seems like a great use case for autonomous flying, but is it? If a farmer has to retrieve the flight shots afterwards and only then observe them to see what the fence looks like, he can simply be taken out himself. There`s no doubt that flying a drone for this task can be much more efficient than walking around, but if you need to see the footage, why not manually control it and see it live? It`s a bit out of our point, but it`s always good to ask yourself if you need autonomy. The last part on “fragile materials” (to minimize the threat that small drones pose to humans and other aircraft) is interesting. Here`s more: Any drone over 0.55 pounds (0.25 kg) must send a unique “remote ID” when in the sky. This is comparable to a digital license plate. The information sent is the location of your drone, an identification number, speed, altitude and most importantly, the location of your pilot.
This rule applies to all new drones produced in series in 2022. And by 2023, all old drones must also meet the standard. All types of drones, with the exception of toy drones weighing less than 250 grams, must be registered with the Civil Aviation Authority. The regulations cover almost all forms of drone use, from commerce and leisure to science.  Drone users who did not register their drones before January 9, 2018 face up to five years in prison or a fine of 100,000 baht ($3100).  On September 11, 2015, an amendment to the Aviation Act was passed to introduce safety rules for unmanned aerial vehicles (UA)/drones. The new regulation entered into force on 10 December 2015.  According to the Civil Aviation Bureau in Japan, the term “UA/drone” refers to any aircraft, rotorcraft, glider or airship that cannot accommodate a person on board and that can be controlled remotely or automatically (except for those that are less than 200 grams, including battery weight).
 A general imperative for the widespread adoption of autonomous drones is safety. This means that autonomous drones must be able to detect and avoid any potential obstacles in their trajectory (D&A), and this must be done without the intervention of an operator. State-of-the-art D&A capabilities support operators in their drone operations by making it easier to identify hazards that can lead to a collision. D&A functions are based on computer vision algorithms to “capture” the environment. To better understand how autonomous drones learn and function, we will now describe how these algorithms are designed and deployed. One of the main proposals of the Communication was for the EU to develop common rules for all drone operations. A year later, the European Commission adopted a new aviation strategy for Europe. Footnote 5 This strategy contained a plan on how to address the future challenges of the European aviation sector and improve the competitiveness of the aerospace industry.
The plan included a proposal to revise the “basic regulation”, which would place all aircraft, including drones, under EU jurisdiction and create the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Footnote 6 In order to demonstrate due diligence, a certain point (e.g., the duty of care of drivers towards other road users) are referred to existing case law. Footnote 55 In other words, due diligence may flow from the common law. However, in new situations, it is more difficult to exercise due diligence. In general, in new situations, the courts will seek to progressively develop the law by building on existing case law and developing it in a similar way. Footnote 56 Given that the drone operates autonomously in our scenario, it is not clear what the duty of care currently entails, and it is therefore difficult to predict how the courts might similarly develop the existing law to cover such an example. In 2011, the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) issued Circular 328, which states that a UAS should have a level of safety equivalent to that of manned aircraft and therefore comply with relevant government regulations for flights and flight equipment. ICAO also distinguishes between autonomous and remotely operated aircraft (RPA) and assumes that only RPA “will be able to integrate into the international civil aviation system for the foreseeable future.”  The DGAC published the final drone guidelines on August 27, 2018. The regulation will enter into force on 1 December 2018. According to regulations, drones are restricted items and cannot be carried in carry-on luggage. All drone operations are limited to daylight and within sight.
However, photography in well-lit enclosed spaces with a microdrone up to 200 feet is allowed even after sunset.  Do you have any questions about drones in education and the classroom? Watch what other educators are doing, ask questions, and join the conversation. The FAA would make available to the public a list of drones that fall into one of three categories, as their manufacturers provide the necessary documentation to prove their compliance. In addition, the FAA would assume that anyone who buys a compliant drone and modifies it in certain ways, such as changing the drone`s computer code or equipping it with non-compliant blades, has assumed the role of a manufacturer and therefore would have to seek FAA approval before that drone could perform operations on humans. Finally, the proposed rule would require that any drone operating in category two or three be marked and marked as such. Operators would be required to follow all manufacturer`s instructions for operations on persons, while the FAA would also continue its current process of granting exemptions to the proposed and existing drone operating requirements described above. In summary, it can be said that the autonomous flight techniques of drones are only part of a true autonomous flight. I`m not a farmer either, don`t worry. I`m also not a big user of the auto-flight features on my drones. I`ve said it before, part of my passion for flying is that I like to be on the sticks of my drone. Follow-me modes are fun and certainly have their place, but the only self-checking feature I use with any frequency is Hover. In addition, for safety reasons, no one can use a flying object, including UA/drones, flying balloons, gliders, flyboards and jetpacks, within a radius of about 300 meters from the National Diet building, official residents of the speakers of the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors, from the official residence of the Prime Minister, the Kasumigasekis, the Supreme Court, the Tokyo Imperial Palace (including the Imperial Residences of Akasaka), let it float.
the main offices of political parties, the offices of diplomatic missions, nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, as well as buildings temporarily used for intergovernmental political forums such as the Group of Seven.  However, from the point of view of the injured party, it may be possible to take legal action against persons other than the owner of the aircraft. For example, it may be possible to claim damages from a manufacturer if a drone was defective under consumer protection laws. Footnote 69 It may also be possible to bring a broader action for negligence against a third party who contributed in any way to the accident. Footnote 70 It is conceivable that a drone crash could be caused by magnetic disturbances to railway lines.